Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Kathleen developed an intense fear of flying 5 years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone:
The taste of food and the termination of painful electric shock are both ________ reinforcers.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of:
Spontaneous recovery refers to the:
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Mrs. Ramirez often tells her children that it is important to buckle their seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does so herself. Her children will probably learn to:
In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal elicited by the red light was a:
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of ________ reinforcement followed by ________ reinforcement.
Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:
Five-year-old Tim is emotionally disturbed and has refused to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher has used the method of:
The removal of electric shock is to good grades as ________ is to ________.
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly ________ an appropriate ________.
A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):
The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by:
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
In order to assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a:
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n):
Humans most easily develop a conditioned aversion to alcohol if its taste is associated with a(n):
A real estate agent showed Henry several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Henry was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Henry, the lakeshore property was a:
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n):
In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the UCS was:
An aversive consequence that decreases the recurrence of the behavior that precedes it is a:
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of:
The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.
Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
Frank, a stock broker, runs 2 miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Frank's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
Every Saturday morning Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n):
An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the 5 minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
A Skinner box is a(n):
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every 5 calls he makes, while Michael is paid 1 dollar for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):
An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n):
Who would be most likely to emphasize the importance of observational learning?
Last year, Dr. Frautschi cleaned Nancy's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Nancy currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:
For several years Ruth played softball for the sheer enjoyment of the game. Her loss of intrinsic interest in playing after being recruited by a professional team for $100 a game best illustrates:
Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by:
Jake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Jake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.