1.

Kathleen developed an intense fear of flying 5 years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone:

A.

spontaneous recovery.

B.

extinction.

C.

generalization.

D.

discrimination.



2.

The taste of food and the termination of painful electric shock are both ________ reinforcers.

A.

positive

B.

negative

C.

primary

D.

conditioned



3.

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.

A.

UCR; CR

B.

CS; UCR

C.

UCS; UCR

D.

CS; UCS

E.

UCS; CR



4.

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of:

A.

latent learning.

B.

shaping.

C.

intermittent reinforcement.

D.

discrimination.

E.

extinction.



5.

Spontaneous recovery refers to the:

A.

expression of learning that had occurred earlier but had not been expressed because of lack of incentive.

B.

organism's tendency to respond spontaneously to stimuli similar to the CS as though they were the CS.

C.

return of a response after punishment has been terminated.

D.

reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.



6.

Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.

A.

fixed-interval

B.

fixed-ratio

C.

variable-interval

D.

variable-ratio



7.

Mrs. Ramirez often tells her children that it is important to buckle their seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does so herself. Her children will probably learn to:

A.

use their seat belts and tell others it is important to do so.

B.

use their seat belts but not tell others it is important to do so.

C.

tell others it is important to use seat belts but rarely use them themselves.

D.

neither tell others that seat belts are important nor use them.



8.

In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.

A.

UCS; CS

B.

UCR; CR

C.

CS; UCS

D.

CR; UCR

E.

UCS; CR



9.

Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal elicited by the red light was a:

A.

UCR.

B.

UCS.

C.

CR.

D.

CS.



10.

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of ________ reinforcement followed by ________ reinforcement.

A.

continuous; partial

B.

primary; secondary

C.

partial; continuous

D.

secondary; primary



11.

Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

A.

decrease; increase

B.

increase; decrease

C.

increase; increase

D.

have no effect on; decrease

E.

increase; have no effect on



12.

After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:

A.

secondary reinforcement.

B.

generalization.

C.

shaping.

D.

latent learning.

E.

spontaneous recovery.



13.

Five-year-old Tim is emotionally disturbed and has refused to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher has used the method of:

A.

latent learning.

B.

modeling.

C.

delayed reinforcement.

D.

spontaneous recovery.

E.

shaping.



14.

The removal of electric shock is to good grades as ________ is to ________.

A.

delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

B.

primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

C.

discrimination; generalization

D.

partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

E.

operant conditioning; classical conditioning



15.

A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly ________ an appropriate ________.

A.

after; UCR

B.

after; UCS

C.

before; UCR

D.

before; UCS

E.

after; CS



16.

A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):

A.

conditioned response.

B.

unconditioned stimulus.

C.

conditioned stimulus.

D.

unconditioned response.



17.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by:

A.

Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

B.

Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response.

C.

Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants.

D.

Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children.



18.

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.

A.

positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

B.

primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

C.

immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer

D.

reinforcement; punishment

E.

partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement



19.

In order to assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a:

A.

UCS.

B.

UCR.

C.

CS.

D.

CR.



20.

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n):

A.

conditioned response.

B.

unconditioned response.

C.

unconditioned stimulus.

D.

conditioned stimulus.



21.

Humans most easily develop a conditioned aversion to alcohol if its taste is associated with a(n):

A.

anger-producing punishment.

B.

nausea-producing food.

C.

pain-producing accident.

D.

fear-producing threat.



22.

A real estate agent showed Henry several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Henry was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Henry, the lakeshore property was a:

A.

UCS.

B.

CS.

C.

UCR.

D.

CR.



23.

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n):

A.

conditioned response.

B.

unconditioned stimulus.

C.

unconditioned response.

D.

conditioned stimulus.



24.

In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?

A.

observational learning

B.

classical conditioning

C.

operant conditioning

D.

latent learning



25.

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the UCS was:

A.

a tone.

B.

salivation to the sound of a tone.

C.

the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.

D.

salivation to the food in the mouth.



26.

An aversive consequence that decreases the recurrence of the behavior that precedes it is a:

A.

negative reinforcer.

B.

punishment.

C.

conditioned stimulus.

D.

delayed reinforcer.

E.

conditioned reinforcer.



27.

Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of:

A.

negative reinforcers.

B.

primary reinforcers.

C.

secondary reinforcers.

D.

intermittent reinforcement.

E.

punishment.



28.

The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.

A.

Pavlov; Skinner

B.

Bandura; Skinner

C.

Skinner; Bandura

D.

Bandura; Pavlov



29.

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

A.

shaping

B.

delayed reinforcement

C.

observational learning

D.

immediate reinforcement

E.

classical conditioning



30.

Frank, a stock broker, runs 2 miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Frank's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.

A.

positive

B.

negative

C.

conditioned

D.

partial



31.

Every Saturday morning Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n):

A.

positive reinforcer.

B.

unconditioned response.

C.

conditioned response.

D.

negative reinforcer.



32.

An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the 5 minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.

A.

fixed-interval

B.

fixed-ratio

C.

variable-ratio

D.

variable-interval



33.

Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?

A.

applause for an excellent piano recital

B.

a spanking for eating cookies before dinner

C.

a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day

D.

termination of shock after removing one's finger from a live electric wire



34.

A Skinner box is a(n):

A.

soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise.

B.

aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors.

C.

special "slot machine" that is used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on gambling behavior.

D.

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reinforcer.

E.

television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning.



35.

Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every 5 calls he makes, while Michael is paid 1 dollar for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ________ schedule.

A.

variable-ratio; fixed-ratio

B.

fixed-ratio; variable-ratio

C.

fixed-ratio; variable-interval

D.

fixed-interval; variable-ratio



36.

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:

A.

respondent behavior.

B.

immediate reinforcement.

C.

spontaneous recovery.

D.

modeling.

E.

shaping.



37.

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):

A.

unconditioned stimulus.

B.

unconditioned response.

C.

conditioned stimulus.

D.

conditioned response.



38.

An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n):

A.

conditioned stimulus.

B.

respondent.

C.

unconditioned stimulus.

D.

reinforcer.

E.

operant.



39.

Who would be most likely to emphasize the importance of observational learning?

A.

Watson

B.

Bandura

C.

Skinner

D.

Pavlov



40.

Last year, Dr. Frautschi cleaned Nancy's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Nancy currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?

A.

observational learning

B.

classical conditioning

C.

the overjustification effect

D.

operant conditioning

E.

latent learning



41.

Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:

A.

generalization.

B.

secondary reinforcement.

C.

shaping.

D.

latent learning.

E.

spontaneous recovery.



42.

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:

A.

shaping.

B.

acquisition.

C.

generalization.

D.

spontaneous recovery.

E.

latent learning.



43.

For several years Ruth played softball for the sheer enjoyment of the game. Her loss of intrinsic interest in playing after being recruited by a professional team for $100 a game best illustrates:

A.

the overjustification effect.

B.

spontaneous recovery.

C.

intermittent reinforcement.

D.

latent learning.

E.

respondent behavior.



44.

Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by:

A.

cognitive processes.

B.

biological predispositions.

C.

environmental factors.

D.

continuous reinforcement.

E.

latent learning.



45.

Jake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Jake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

A.

fixed-ratio

B.

fixed-interval

C.

variable-interval

D.

variable-ratio




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