Studies of daydreaming indicate that:
for most people, daydreaming is a rare occurrence.
older adults spend more time daydreaming than do younger adults.
among college students, women's daydreams have more athletic content than do men's.
individuals who are prone to violence, delinquency, and drug usage have fewer vivid fantasies.
Jennifer has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not yet fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of:
rapid eye movements.
When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by:
depleting the brain's supply of serotonin.
blocking the reuptake of dopamine.
stimulating the release of excess norepinephrine.
triggering a state of dissociation.
Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?
Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime.
Eat a big dinner late in the evening so you'll feel drowsy at bedtime.
Relax with a drink of your favorite alcoholic beverage just before bedtime.
Engage in some form of vigorous physical exercise shortly before bedtime.
Be sure to sleep later than usual once you do get to sleep.
Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is:
entering the third stage of sleep.
ready to sleepwalk.
exhibiting a sleep spindle.
experiencing a night terror.
Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that:
very few people can actually be hypnotized.
people who are most easily hypnotized usually have difficulty paying attention to their own personal thoughts and feelings.
how well a person responds to hypnotic suggestion depends primarily on the skill and experience of the hypnotist.
people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to have rich fantasy lives.
the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember.
the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.
effortless encoding of incidental information into memory.
our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?
Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Karl experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dilated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Karl most likely experienced the effects of:
Amphetamines are to ________ as barbiturates are to ________.
Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was making use of:
a hidden observer.
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because:
our heart rate is slow and steady, while our breathing is highly irregular.
we are deeply asleep but can be awakened easily.
our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
it leads to highly imaginative dreams that are perceived as colorless images.
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that:
an occasional cigarette smoker almost always becomes a heavy smoker.
regular marijuana smokers typically experience an irresistible craving for THC.
many people are able to stop using morphine without professional help.
individuals who receive morphine from physicians for pain relief usually develop the irresistible cravings of an addict.
Compared to others, those with a fantasy-prone personality are likely to:
dream very little during sleep.
be unresponsive to hypnotic suggestion.
have trouble distinguishing memories of imagined events from those of actual experience.
make use of psychoactive drugs in order to alter their perceptions and moods.
have shorter periods of REM sleep.
Forty-year-old Roger insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:
experiences very little REM sleep.
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
dreams during Stage 4 rather than during REM sleep.
experiences more Stage 4 sleep than most people.
passes through the sleep cycle much more rapidly than most people.
Which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenagers begin using drugs?
Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?
social influence theory
Freud's dream theory
While under hypnosis, Charlotte describes her experience of being kidnapped at age 5. In suggesting that she will soon forget this traumatic event, the hypnotist is encouraging Charlotte to experience:
Alcohol has the most profound effect on:
the transfer of experiences to long-term memory.
previously established long-term memories.
all of the above.
Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________.
REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
narcolepsy; sleep apnea
delta waves; alpha waves
Stage 4 sleep; Stage 1 sleep
Stage 1 sleep; REM sleep
Greg remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car to prevent him from driving off the edge of a cliff. Greg's therapist suggested that the dream might be a representation of the girlfriend's frantic efforts to save the couple from sexual disaster. According to Freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the ________ of Greg's dream.
In large doses, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a ________.
The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by:
REM rebound involves the:
tendency for REM sleep periods to become increasingly longer and more frequent as a normal night of sleep progresses.
increase in REM sleep that characteristically follows intense learning episodes or stressful daytime experiences.
unusual symptoms of tiredness and irritability that follow periods of REM sleep deprivation.
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal:
alpha wave pattern.
Twenty-eight-year-old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to remember his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of:
the hidden observer.
REM sleep is ________ by alcohol and ________ by sleeping pills.
When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop tremors, fever, and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of:
Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping throughout the night. It is most likely that Mr. Oates suffers from:
One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by:
blocking sensory input.
speeding up the circadian rhythm.
eliciting delta waves characteristic of deep sleep.
After a stressful day at the office, Harvey has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Harvey's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember:
at the time he is drinking the names of the people he has just met.
the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking.
at the time he is drinking the name of his employer and his own home address.
the next day the names of the business associates he talked to before going to the bar.
Compared to young women, young men are ________ likely to report dreams involving sexual imagery and they are ________ likely to dream about members of the same sex.
While soundly asleep people cannot:
talk and dream at the same time.
incorporate environmental changes into the manifest content of their dreams.
learn tape-recorded messages to which they are repeatedly exposed.
do any of the above.
THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account represents the ________ content of her dream.
At 1:00 a.m. Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of:
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly lapsed into a state of REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from:
With the approach of night, our body temperatures begin to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the:
The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of:
Stage 1 sleep.
Stage 2 sleep.
Stage 3 sleep.
Stage 4 sleep.
Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for:
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:
2 1/2 hours.
The social influence theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that:
behaviors produced through hypnotic procedures can also be produced without them.
hypnotized subjects have a hidden observer.
easily hypnotized individuals have difficulty focusing attention on their own thoughts and feelings.
very few people are at all responsive to hypnotic suggestions.
Sixteen-year-old Judy is becoming increasingly concerned about her use of marijuana on weekends. In order to reduce her use of this drug Judy should:
recognize that life is stressful and often beyond control.
be warned that marijuana interferes with female sexual functioning.
stop associating with friends who use marijuana.
recognize that drug use results from her own lack of social skills.
Chronic sleep deprivation is likely to ________ obesity and ________ memory.
In her frantic efforts to cover up her husband's alcohol abuse, Sharon often makes his business calls and completes routine paper work on his behalf. Her behavior is most likely to be cited as an indication of:
a fantasy-prone personality.
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