1.

Which of the following senses is best described as a chemical sense?

A.

touch

B.

kinesthesis

C.

audition

D.

vision

E.

smell



2.

Taste receptors are located:

A.

on the top of the tongue.

B.

on the sides of the tongue.

C.

on the roof of the mouth.

D.

in all the above places.



3.

The cocktail party effect provides an example of:

A.

perceptual constancy.

B.

perceptual set.

C.

selective attention.

D.

the phi phenomenon.

E.

perceptual adaptation.



4.

Which cells are located closest to the back of the retina?

A.

ganglion cells

B.

bipolar cells

C.

rods and cones

D.

feature detectors



5.

Loudness is to amplitude as pitch is to:

A.

brightness.

B.

hue.

C.

timbre.

D.

frequency.



6.

The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:

A.

signal detection.

B.

sensory interaction.

C.

subliminal perception.

D.

accommodation.

E.

sensation.



7.

Cones are to vision as ________ are to audition.

A.

eardrums

B.

cochleas

C.

oval windows

D.

hair cells

E.

semicircular canals



8.

The opponent-process theory is to our sense of color as the gate-control theory is to our sense of:

A.

pitch.

B.

smell.

C.

equilibrium.

D.

kinesthesis.

E.

pain.



9.

Many hard-of-hearing people like sound compressed because they are still sensitive to ________ sounds.

A.

loud

B.

high-pitched

C.

prolonged

D.

unpredictable



10.

Of the four distinct skin senses, specialized receptor cells have been identified for the sense of:

A.

pressure.

B.

pain.

C.

warmth.

D.

cold.



11.

The olfactory cortex is located within the:

A.

frontal lobes.

B.

parietal lobes.

C.

occipital lobes.

D.

temporal lobes.



12.

The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of:

A.

loudness.

B.

color.

C.

brightness.

D.

pain.

E.

pitch.



13.

Which of the following pain control techniques is emphasized in the Lamaze method of childbirth training?

A.

accommodation

B.

acupuncture

C.

subliminal stimulation

D.

kinesthesis

E.

distraction



14.

Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds?

A.

place theory

B.

opponent-process theory

C.

frequency theory

D.

the Young-Helmholtz theory



15.

Receptor cells for kinesthesis are located within the:

A.

fovea.

B.

inner ear.

C.

muscles, tendon, and joints.

D.

olfactory epithelium.

E.

auditory cortex.



16.

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates:

A.

visual capture.

B.

perceptual set.

C.

retinal disparity.

D.

selective attention.

E.

the phi phenomenon.



17.

Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

A.

encoding; detection

B.

detection; interpretation

C.

interpretation; organization

D.

organization; adaptation



18.

People's response to subliminal stimulation indicates that:

A.

they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.

B.

their subconscious minds are incapable of resisting subliminally presented suggestions.

C.

they are more sensitive to subliminal sounds than to subliminal sights.

D.

they experience a sense of discomfort whenever they are exposed to subliminal stimuli.



19.

Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds?

A.

signal detection theory

B.

frequency theory

C.

opponent-process theory

D.

feature detection theory



20.

Place theory suggests that:

A.

structures in the inner ear provide us with a sense of the position of our bodies in space.

B.

we have a system for sensing the position and movement of the various parts of our body.

C.

we can locate the place from which a sound is emitted because of the distance between our ears.

D.

the pitch we hear is related to the place where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated.



21.

The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates:

A.

sensory interaction.

B.

kinesthesis.

C.

accommodation.

D.

subliminal perception.

E.

parallel processing.



22.

Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?

A.

olfactory receptors

B.

feature detectors

C.

basilar membranes

D.

bipolar cells

E.

semicircular canals



23.

During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly ever detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's:

A.

subliminal threshold.

B.

absolute threshold.

C.

sensory adaptation threshold.

D.

difference threshold.



24.

According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the:

A.

release of pain-killing endorphins in your brain.

B.

activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord.

C.

arousal of your autonomic nervous system and the release of adrenaline into your bloodstream.

D.

deactivation of the pain receptors on the surface of your skin.



25.

The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of:

A.

pleasure, pain, warmth, and cold.

B.

pain, pressure, hot, and cold.

C.

wetness, pain, hot, and cold.

D.

pressure, pain, warmth, and cold.



26.

The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to:

A.

hearing.

B.

kinesthesis.

C.

the vestibular sense.

D.

parallel processing.

E.

accommodation.



27.

After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the ________ theory.

A.

gate-control

B.

frequency

C.

Young-Helmholtz

D.

opponent-process

E.

place



28.

The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by:

A.

the Young-Helmholtz theory.

B.

the gate-control theory.

C.

place theory.

D.

frequency theory.

E.

the opponent-process theory.



29.

Accommodation refers to the:

A.

diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.

B.

system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.

C.

quivering eye movements that enable the retina to detect continuous stimulation.

D.

process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural messages.

E.

process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina.



30.

Sensory adaptation refers to:

A.

the process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural impulses.

B.

diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.

C.

the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information.

D.

changes in the shape of the lens as it focuses on objects.



31.

Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called:

A.

feature detection.

B.

accommodation.

C.

kinesthesis.

D.

sensory interaction.

E.

the vestibular sense.



32.

When looking at the hands of a clock signifying 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than if the hands signify 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of:

A.

sensory interaction.

B.

feature detection.

C.

parallel processing.

D.

sensory interaction.

E.

accommodation.



33.

The blind spot is located in the area of the retina:

A.

called the fovea.

B.

that contains rods but no cones.

C.

where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

D.

where bipolar cells connect with ganglion cells.



34.

A time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately:

A.

locating sounds.

B.

detecting pitch.

C.

identifying timbre.

D.

judging amplitude.



35.

Intensity is to brightness as wavelength is to:

A.

frequency.

B.

accommodation.

C.

timbre.

D.

amplitude.

E.

hue.



36.

If a partially deaf person's hearing ability ________, his or her absolute threshold for sound ________.

A.

improves; remains unchanged

B.

worsens; decreases

C.

worsens; remains unchanged

D.

improves; decreases



37.

During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates the importance of:

A.

accommodation.

B.

sensory interaction.

C.

kinesthesis.

D.

serial processing.

E.

sensory adaptation.



38.

Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ________ theory.

A.

frequency

B.

Young-Helmholtz

C.

gate-control

D.

opponent-process

E.

signal detection



39.

The cochlea is a:

A.

fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.

B.

fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position.

C.

fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of body movement.

D.

set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum.



40.

Red light is to blue light as ________ sounds are to ________ sounds.

A.

loud; soft

B.

soft; loud

C.

high-pitched; low-pitched

D.

low-pitched; high-pitched



41.

News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and Coca-Cola involved false claims regarding:

A.

parallel processing.

B.

difference thresholds.

C.

kinesthesis.

D.

sensory interaction.

E.

subliminal stimulation.



42.

Pleasant memories are most likely to be evoked by exposure to:

A.

bright colors.

B.

soft touches.

C.

fragrant odors.

D.

loud sounds.



43.

Weber's law is to difference thresholds as the opponent-process theory is to:

A.

audition.

B.

visual acuity.

C.

accommodation.

D.

afterimages.

E.

absolute thresholds.



44.

Damage to the fovea would probably have the least effect on visual sensitivity to ________ stimuli.

A.

brilliantly colored

B.

finely detailed

C.

dimly illuminated

D.

highly familiar



45.

The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of:

A.

sensory adaptation.

B.

accommodation.

C.

parallel processing.

D.

transduction.

E.

sensory interaction.



46.

When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears:

A.

yellow.

B.

red.

C.

green.

D.

blue.



47.

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

A.

accommodation of the lens

B.

transduction of the cones

C.

dilation of the pupils

D.

sensory adaptation of feature detectors



48.

Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates:

A.

the opponent-process theory.

B.

accommodation.

C.

frequency theory.

D.

sensory adaptation.

E.

Weber's law.



49.

The basilar membrane is lined with:

A.

hair cells.

B.

olfactory receptors.

C.

bipolar cells.

D.

feature detectors.



50.

Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?

A.

rods

B.

cones

C.

bipolar cells

D.

feature detectors




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