1.

Professor Ober carefully monitors and records the behaviors of children on school playgrounds in order to track the development of their physical skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in:

A.

survey research.

B.

naturalistic observation.

C.

experimentation.

D.

replication.



2.

Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?

A.

the survey

B.

the experiment

C.

correlational research

D.

naturalistic observation



3.

A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that:

A.

poverty makes people vulnerable to psychological disorders.

B.

the poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder than the wealthy.

C.

psychological disorders usually prevent people from accumulating wealth.

D.

all the above are true.



4.

The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of:

A.

survey research.

B.

case study research.

C.

naturalistic observation.

D.

correlational research.

E.

experimental research.



5.

The cognitive perspective in psychology emphasizes how:

A.

feelings are influenced by brain chemistry.

B.

people try to understand their own unconscious motives.

C.

behavior is influenced by environmental conditions.

D.

people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.



6.

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it:

A.

is based on naturalistic observation.

B.

may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

C.

is unusually easy to explain in hindsight.

D.

leads us to underestimate the causal relationships between events.



7.

In the control condition of an experiment the:

A.

experimenter exerts the greatest influence on participants' behavior.

B.

research participants are exposed to all the different experimental treatments.

C.

research participants are exposed to the most favorable levels of experimental treatment.

D.

experimental treatment is absent.



8.

Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different subjects and in different circumstances?

A.

replication

B.

correlational research

C.

random sampling

D.

naturalistic observation

E.

random assignment



9.

The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by:

A.

environmental circumstances.

B.

brain chemistry.

C.

unconscious conflicts.

D.

subjective interpretations.



10.

Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of:

A.

illusory correlation.

B.

the false consensus effect.

C.

the hindsight bias.

D.

the double-blind procedure.

E.

the placebo effect.



11.

In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the ________ variable.

A.

experimental

B.

dependent

C.

correlational

D.

independent



12.

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the reproductive success of our female ancestors. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.

A.

social-cultural

B.

behavioral

C.

cognitive

D.

evolutionary

E.

psychodynamic



13.

Conservatives are more likely than liberals to perceive high levels of popular support for politically conservative views. This best illustrates:

A.

an illusion of control.

B.

illusory correlation.

C.

the false consensus effect.

D.

the hindsight bias.



14.

Wilhelm Wundt used the research method known as:

A.

neuroscience.

B.

introspection.

C.

psychoanalysis.

D.

massed practice.

E.

PRTR.



15.

In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.

A.

dependent

B.

experimental

C.

control

D.

independent



16.

Prediction is to ________ as explanation is to ________.

A.

correlation; experimentation

B.

case study; survey

C.

random assignment; random sampling

D.

independent variable; dependent variable

E.

the hindsight bias; false consensus



17.

Professor Saxton was very skeptical about the findings of a recently reported experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation. Which technique would best enable her to investigate the reliability of these findings?

A.

naturalistic observation

B.

replication

C.

random sampling

D.

positive correlation



18.

In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of:

A.

random assignment.

B.

naturalistic observation.

C.

replication.

D.

correlation.

E.

random sampling.



19.

The case study is a research method in which:

A.

a single individual is studied in great detail.

B.

a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors.

C.

organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment.

D.

an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.



20.

In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is:

A.

$10,000.

B.

$15,000.

C.

$16,000.

D.

$31,000.

E.

$80,000.



21.

Researchers and subjects in a drug-evaluation study are both ignorant about which subjects have actually received an experimental drug and which were given a placebo. This investigation involves the use of:

A.

the false consensus effect.

B.

the hindsight bias.

C.

random sampling.

D.

the double-blind procedure.

E.

replication.



22.

In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted alcoholic. This nonalcoholic drink was a:

A.

dependent variable.

B.

replication.

C.

placebo.

D.

random sample.

E.

double blind.



23.

A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called a(n):

A.

standard deviation.

B.

independent variable.

C.

correlation coefficient.

D.

mean.



24.

Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "they simply required common sense." However, they each received a 60% on the exam. This best illustrates:

A.

illusory correlation.

B.

overconfidence.

C.

random assignment.

D.

the false consensus effect.

E.

the hindsight bias.



25.

When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?

A.

mean

B.

standard deviation

C.

mode

D.

median

E.

range



26.

Professor Morin wants to discover whether the intelligence of adopted children is more similar to their adoptive parents or to their biological parents. The professor seems to be most directly interested in the issue of:

A.

observation versus introspection.

B.

rationality versus irrationality.

C.

nature versus nurture.

D.

behavior versus mental processes.



27.

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

A.

-.12

B.

+1.00

C.

-.99

D.

+.25

E.

-.50



28.

Which measure of central tendency is used to calculate your grade-point average?

A.

standard deviation

B.

median

C.

mean

D.

mode



29.

A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between:

A.

intelligence and academic success.

B.

financial poverty and physical health.

C.

self-esteem and depression.

D.

school grades and school absences.



30.

John Watson is to Wilhelm Wundt as ________ is to ________.

A.

heredity; environment

B.

observable behavior; inner sensations

C.

mental illness; psychotherapy

D.

cognitive perspective; psychoanalytic perspective



31.

A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n):

A.

standard deviation.

B.

control condition.

C.

replication.

D.

operational definition.

E.

case study.



32.

Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events?

A.

mean

B.

scatterplot

C.

standard deviation

D.

normal distribution

E.

correlation coefficient



33.

Dr. Wilson attributes the violence of criminal gang members to the norms and role expectations associated with gang membership. Her belief best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.

A.

psychodynamic

B.

behavior genetics

C.

social-cultural

D.

neuroscience

E.

evolutionary



34.

Research participants are randomly assigned to different conditions in an experiment in order to:

A.

reduce the likelihood that participants within any condition know each other.

B.

increase the likelihood that research participants are representative of people in general.

C.

reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between the groups of participants assigned to the different conditions.

D.

increase the likelihood that the different experimental conditions have the same number of participants.



35.

During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is:

A.

7.

B.

11.

C.

12.

D.

14.

E.

21.




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