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Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behavior

A dimension of culture is an aspect of culture that can be measured relative to other cultures.

Two examples are:

  1. Collectivism and individualism: This relates to the relationship between the individual and the group. In individualist countries (e.g. France, Germany, Denmark, and the USA) people tend to see themselves as individuals who must take care of themselves. Ties between individuals are loose and voluntary. Typical values are freedom, personal challenge, and personal time. In collectivist countries (e.g. Japan, Mexico, and Korea) the individual is tied to social groups such as families or clans throughout their lifetime. This extended social group provides safety in return for loyalty.
  1. Long-term orientation and short-term orientation (Hofstede and Bond 1988): it describes societies’ time horizon. Long term oriented societies attach more importance to the future. They foster pragmatic values oriented towards rewards, including persistence, saving and capacity for adaptation. In short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present, including steadiness, respect for tradition, preservation of one’s face, reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations.


Study to use: Wei et al. (2001)