States of Consciousness

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

The chief characteristic of hypnosis is

The most frequently used psychoactive drug in the United States is

Which of the following sleep phenomena could be detected without the aid of an EEG machine?

Dissociation or a split in awareness is an experience commonly associated with

Which of the following best describes the stability of sleep cycles?

A loud noise awakens you; you emerge from sleep confused and do not remember the noise. You were in which stage of sleep?

Which of the following is a goal of the therapeutic use of sensory deprivation?

Hypnotized subjects who were told to plunge one hand into a painful bath of ice water, and were told to feel no pain,

Beta waves are characteristic in the EEG of a person who is

Physical cravings for a drug and unpleasant reactions when the drug is withheld are signs of

Drug abuse associated with which of the following drugs is correlated with breast cysts, birth defects, miscarriage, and contributes to bladder cancer, heart problems, and high blood pressure?

Which of the following drugs is physically addictive?

The reduction in the body's response to a drug which may accompany drug use is called

A sudden, irresistible urge to sleep, which lasts a few minutes to half an hour during the daytime, is called

A particularly dangerous (often fatal) combination of drugs is

The surest way to alter human consciousness is

Freud believed that, in order to protect sleep and prevent the arousal of conscience, the content of our dreams is

A sleep disturbance in which one awakens several times during the night and has difficulty returning to sleep is

When a person stops taking cocaine, all of the following occur EXCEPT

Which of the following is most likely to occur as a consequence of hypnosis?

Smoked forms of cocaine are commonly called

Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations are characteristic of

Someone who is hungry may show

During hypnosis, EEG (brain-wave) recordings

Nicotine is classified as a

The safest sleep position for most infants in order to prevent SIDS is

Infants sleep

The most common reactions to sleep loss up to 48 hours

In a newborn infant, one could expect total sleep time each day to approach

Our sleep rhythms are tied to a 24-hour day because

Drugs with names like Xanax, Halcion, and Valium are

Substances capable of altering human consciousness are classified as

The ordering and duration of daily sleep and waking periods are known as

The major cause of temporary insomnia is

Research suggests that the two most basic states of sleep are

When a person is shut off from the world such that he or she cannot even tell what time it is by light or dark, their sleep-waking cycle


The rhythms of sleep and waking

Which of the following is a major way in which altered states of consciousness are produced?

The average ratio of time awake to time asleep is

Night terrors most often occur during

According to Freud, dreams are very often a means of

Lindsay is having trouble going to sleep. Which food would be recommended for her to eat if she wanted to increase her intake of tryptophan?

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a condition called

Immediately before sleep the EEG shifts to patterns of larger and slower waves called __________ waves.

Perhaps the best known hallucinogen is

Dreams usually

Which of the following is a primary characteristic of dream sleep?

Which stage of sleep typically has spindles?

NREM sleep occurs mainly in

That there is a need for REM sleep is suggested by

Hypnosis is particularly useful

Recent evidence suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana,

Short-term drug use based largely on curiosity is called

A sleep disturbance characterized by snoring, short silences, and gasps is called

Hypnosis currently has its greatest value as a(n)

Some physicians believe that SIDS, or crib death, may be caused by

__________ is an amino acid that can help people sleep and can be found in a glass of __________.

Which of the following is a correct match?

Which of the following is classified as a stimulant?


Which of the following could you learn to do in your sleep?

Treatment for alcoholism generally begins with

If you suffered sleep deprivation, what type of effect would occur first?

People dream

A very stressful day is likely to increase the amount of

Which of the following occurs during dream sleep?

Extensive study of dreams indicates that

In Stage __________, a new brain wave begins to appear. __________ waves are very large and slow and signal deeper sleep and a further loss of consciousness.

Cocaine achieves its effect through the chemical messengers

Many of the chemicals released by a burning cigarette are

As the muscles in your body relax during Stage 1 sleep, the reflex muscle contraction that may happen is called

Which waves are characteristic of stage 1 or light sleep?

Alcohol is classified as a

A person experiences blind panic, screaming, and thrashing around during the terror. This episode is called

REM sleep makes up about __________ percent of total sleep.

Which of the following statements concerning marijuana is TRUE?

To be conscious means to be __________ .

At the center of the activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming is the need to

The drug in America that causes the most damage is

EEG records indicate that during sleep the brain

A person who has trouble getting to sleep is said to suffer from