Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Nell tastes her food, then salts it. You assume that the food needed salt, therefore, you attribute her actions to a(n)
There is a strong relationship between dating frequency and physical attractiveness
__________ is best known for his research on conformity.
Which is TRUE regarding choosing a mate?
The study in which college students attached a bumper sticker for a militant black organization to their cars and then received frequent traffic citations demonstrates
According to Janis, John F. Kennedy's Bay of Pigs failure was caused in large part by
When we perform well, we typically attribute our success to __________.
Which is true of social stereotypes?
A __________ group is a group based on social comparison.
During the Stanford Prison study,
Scapegoating is releasing aggression on __________ targets.
During research in a simulated prison situation
The degree of attraction among group members relates to the dimension of
According to the theory of cognitive dissonance, attitudes are changed because
An example of a superordinate goal is
You are walking into a store when a man rudely cuts in front of you, almost shoving you, so that he may enter the store first. "What a jerk!" you think to yourself. As you enter the store, you see the same man performing an emergency tracheotomy on a women with a collapsed windpipe. You have just
According to evolutionary psychologists,
In North America, male friendships are __________ based and female friendships are __________ .
Which statement about physical attractiveness is FALSE?
Moderate self-disclosure typically leads to
Research by Donnerstein suggests that the circumstances most likely to increase violent sexual acts against women (such as rape) involve:
When subjects in Milgram's obedience experiments received their orders over the phone, they
Solomon Asch's classic experiment (in which subjects judged a standard line and comparison lines) was arranged to test the limits of
Aggression is best defined as
Attribution theory concerns our tendency to explain our behavior and that of others
The __________ hypothesis states that frustration tends to lead to aggression.
Which of the following is a testament to the power of roles?
Arabs are typically depicted in the media as oil-rich but ignorant and savage. In a time of war with an Arab country, this image would be used
A compulsion by decision makers to maintain each other's approval, even at the cost of critical thinking and good judgment, is called
The person who agrees to a small request initially is more likely later to comply with a larger demand. This describes the
For most American adults, an invisible spatial envelope defining their most intimate space
Which theory holds that a relationship must be profitable to endure?
Prejudice based on displaced aggression represents a form of
Social position in a group determines one's
You are asked by a close friend to outline a complete text to aid her studying for a final exam. You refuse to help. Later, your friend asks if you would at least outline two chapters. Feeling guilty, you now agree to help. Your behavior is predicted by the
__________ attachment style is marked by conflicting feelings of affection, anger, and emotional turmoil.
Zimbardo interpreted the results of his simulated prison study as an indication of the
With regard to the effects of TV on children, we can conclude that
Subjects in Milgram's experiment who gave large shocks rationalized that they were NOT personally responsible for their actions. This raises questions about our willingness to commit inhumane acts as a result of
The process of changing your behavior to match that of others in a group is
If everyone leaves five minutes before the game is over to avoid a traffic jam, the resulting traffic jam would be an example of
People's invisible "spatial envelope" defines their __________, and extends "I" or "me" boundaries past the skin.
A student who is unprepared for a final exam complains that he has a stomach ache and cannot take the exam. If the student's roommate ignores this complaint, he or she has probably attributed the student's symptoms to the
Physical proximity increases attraction because it
The study of unspoken rules for the use of interpersonal space is called
Someone asks you to bring dip to a party and you agree. Later the person asks you to also bring popcorn, chips, and sodas. The person has used which compliance strategy?
The real danger of "groupthink" is that it
The organization of roles, patterns of communication, and power in a group defines the group's
Those roles which one attains voluntarily are called
Social traps can be dismantled by changing
A learned disposition to respond to people, objects, or institutions in a positive or negative way defines
In general, helping behavior in emergency situations is discouraged by
Frustration probably encourages aggression because it
When a person with little or no authority makes a direct request to another person, the situation involves
The fact that physically attractive people also tend to be rated more highly on traits such as intelligence and honesty is an example of
Which of the following statements concerning "jigsaw" classrooms is TRUE?
Negative attitudes that are tinged with fear, hatred, or suspicion is a definition of
During his rise to power, Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's economic woes. This is an example of
When you have "clashing thoughts," you are experiencing
Interpersonal attraction is encouraged by which one of the following?
Vanessa is female, a daughter, and a young adult. The roles that shape her behavior are called __________ roles.
With respect to social traps, people are more likely to restrain themselves from inappropriate behavior if
Janis recommends ways to prevent groupthink, which include
People's attitudes about women and rape primarily come from
The judge who is caught cheating on his income tax is likely experiencing
Cognitive dissonance theory is based on the human need for
According to evolutionary psychologists,
Which of the following was a factor in determining the degree of obedience in Milgram's series of experiments?
Discrimination refers to behaviors that
In an experiment in which a "student" simulated a seizure, helping was inhibited by
Sharing your own private thoughts and feelings is called
Which of the following was a significant factor in determining the degree of obedience in Milgram's series of experiments?
When making the "attribution error," we tend to overestimate the importance of __________ in judging the behavior of others.
People who think their ethnic, national, or religious group is superior to others are called
You do not want a large, unattractive political sign in your yard. However, if you initially agree to put a small sign in your window, later you are more likely to allow the large sign in your yard. This course of events is described by the
In his classic studies of conformity, Asch demonstrated that
__________ is the process of making inferences about behavior.
Creation of superordinate goals has been shown to be effective in reducing
Expected behavior patterns associated with particular social positions are called
As part of an experiment, two young women stroll down a busy sidewalk with their arms around each other. They get a variety of reactions from passersby, including disapproving looks and comments. These reactions demonstrate the existence of
After Mrs. Keech's doomsday predictions failed, her followers suddenly became interested in convincing others they were right. This turn of events is predicted by __________ theory.
The demonstration by Jane Elliot with blue-eyed and brown-eyed children suggests that an effective way to generate conditions of prejudice is to
An individual's misuse of valuable natural resources could be an example of
Overdisclosure often results in
The three techniques used for brainwashing identified by McConnell are
Comparing yourself with a person who ranks lower than you is referred to as
How individuals are affected by the presence of others is the focus of study in the field of
Shows such as Mr. Roger's Neighborhood and Sesame Street demonstrate TV's ability to
Karen smokes two packs of cigarettes a day. However, she is aware that smoking is harmful to her health; therefore, she holds two conflicting or dissonant thoughts. If Karen were to reduce her cognitive dissonance by changing her attitude, she might say to herself,
Zimbardo's prison experiment suggests that many destructive human relationships have their source in
The study of the adaptive origins of human behavior patterns is called
Groups reward members with __________ and __________ for comformity.
Stanley Milgram's experiment in which a "teacher" gave shocks to a "learner" was designed to test the limits of
Milgram's shock study showed people to be surprisingly
Which is a method to reduce prejudice?
An ongoing pattern of life including such things as language, customs and sex roles is called
A reference group is
Studies of conformity indicate that people are more apt to be influenced by others if they