Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
A psychologist using the method of naturalistic observation would
In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given
A scientific explanation that remains tentative until it has been adequately tested is called a(n)
A study to determine the degree of relationship between two events is called
__________ is an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.
The phrase "a theory must also be falsifiable" means
The products of naturalistic observation are best described in terms of
A teacher believes that one group of children is very bright and that a second is below average in ability. Actually, the groups are identical, but the first group progresses more rapidly than the second. This demonstrates
A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building. This method of collecting observations is best described as
In an experiment to find out if taking ginseng increases IQ scores, the IQ scores would be
Which of the following is considered a disadvantage of naturalistic observation?
Subjects are said to be assigned randomly when
A psychologist watches the rapid eye movements of sleeping subjects and wakes them to find they report that they were dreaming. She concludes that dreams are linked to rapid eye movements. This conclusion is based on
To prevent ethical abuse in psychological research, the APA has suggested that
A common method for selecting representative samples is to select them
Three major ethical concerns of psychological researchers are deception, lasting harm to subjects, and
An experimenter conducts an experiment on the effects of a drug to control hallucinations. He declares the results to be "statistically significant," which usually means that
We wish to test the hypothesis that music improves learning. We compare test scores of students who study to music with those who study in silence. Which of the following is an extraneous variable in this experiment?
The statistical technique that combines results of a large number of studies is called
An experiment is performed to see if background music improves learning. Two groups study the same material, one while listening to music and another without music. The independent variable is
The chief function of the control group in an experiment is that it
Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the strongest relationship between two sets of variables?
The most powerful research tool is a (an)
A major disadvantage of the experimental method is that
A researcher determines that the crime rate in a large city fluctuates with the phases of the moon. He concludes that the gravitational pull of the moon influences human behavior. He has committed what error?
Students who do better in high school tend to do better in college. This is an example of
In the traditional learning experiment, the effect of practice on performance is investigated. Performance is the __________ variable.
Collection of observable evidence, precise definition, and replication of results all form the basis for
An advantage of the experimental method in psychology is
A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is
The independent variable in an experiment is
In order to summarize or organize a series of observations in some meaningful way, psychologists may develop
Basic ethical guidelines for psychological researchers include
Which of the following best describes a double-blind experimental procedure?
A set of exact procedures that represent particular variables is called a(n)
A friend states that since he has been taking vitamin C, he has not had a single cold. His observation has little value in assessing the effects of vitamin C because
A simple experiment has two groups of subjects called
An example of the "experimenter effect" would be a situation in which the experimenter
Which of the following is considered by the text to be a pseudo-psychology?
To investigate the effects of a particular study method on student performance, two different methods are tried, each with a different group of subjects. If only the experimenter knows which method is under investigation, the procedure being used is described as
The results of carefully controlled observations of Clever Hans and his ability to solve math problems showed
The study of unusual events is to __________ as information from a large number of people is to __________.
One of the limitations of the survey method is
I work at a university, and my research is designed to be of immediate use in the classroom. My research would be called
In terms of critical thinking and testing, results should
A variable, such as the personality of a subject, that might affect the outcome of an experiment would be controlled by
In my experiment, I am going to investigate how sleep affects anxiety. The number of hours of sleep the subjects have is called the __________ variable.
With respect to astrology, palmistry, and phrenology, it can be said that
A major problem with the survey method is
An observation that the higher the air temperature, the lower the activity of test animals would be an example of a
To assess clients' abilities, a phrenologist would want to
To replicate an experiment means to
The conditions that a researcher wishes to prevent from affecting the experiment are called
One of the characteristics of the scientific method is
In the simplest experiment, the two groups of subjects are treated exactly alike except for the __________ variable.
The steps involved in the scientific method include?
__________ is an inherent part of the scientific method.
The story of Clever Hans, the mathematical horse, illustrates the use of controlled observation to test a series of
When subjects in an experiment are chosen so that each has an equal chance of being in either the experimental group or the control group, we say that the subjects have been assigned
The survey method involves
The following type of method can be used in order to create a real world laboratory.
To be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship exists, it is necessary to
An experiment is performed to test the effects of sleep deprivation on rote memory. In this experiment, the dependent variable is the
The fortune teller who studies your palm carefully before announcing that "great fortune lies in your immediate future" is practicing __________ psychology.
Research on the benefit of aspirin to prevent heart attacks used only male subjects in the sample. Both men and women are given this advice. The problem with this recommendation reflects
To estimate the degree of the relationship between birth order and achievement motivation, a researcher would do a(n) __________ study.
In the method of naturalistic observation, psychologists
Two variables may be said to be causally related if
The problems of observers seeing only what they expect to see is called
Giving placebos in drug experiments is necessary to
Which of the following could serve as an experimental hypothesis?
Theories explain results, predict future outcomes, and
Which of the following coefficients of correlation indicates the weakest relationship between two sets of variables?
A correlation coefficient of -1.09 indicates a(n)
A representative sample is an essential element of the
The effects of brain injury on personality would usually be investigated by the use of the
One of the limitations of the case study is that
A scientist wants to find out if there is empirical evidence for a relationship between caffeine and aggressive behavior. She would
The essence of the experimental method is
If you're trying to establish a causal relationship between a reinforcer and increased performance, you should use a(n) __________ method.
In a weight-reduction experiment, an overweight individual was given what the researcher called a new type of diet pill that would help curb the desire to eat. In fact, the pill really contained powdered milk, but ever since the individual started taking the diet pill, he has reported that his desire to eat has decreased. This illustrates the
An educated guess about what is controlling some behavior is called
A correlation coefficient is best characterized as a(n)
In order to determine the cause of behavior, the questions we ask must be
A common sense approach to psychology is
Responding to a substance like a sugar pill as if it were a drug is called
The control group and the experimental group in an experiment are treated exactly the same except for the