Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Id is to "Just do it" as superego is to
Behavioral theories of personality are often criticized for their
The concept of traits is used to account for personal characteristics that are
The five-factor model of personality includes
A personality theory is a(n)
Which of the following is an unconscious personality structure made up of biological urges seeking fulfillment?
Criticisms of Freud's developmental theory have centered on
One problem psychologists have with personality types is they
Freud believed that personality was typified by
To understand personality, trait theorists attempt to
According to Freud, the energy from life instincts that drives personality is called the
According to Freud, the id is governed by the
In the Freudian view of personality, which system is totally unconscious and dominated by biological instincts?
__________ theory maximized and __________ theory minimized the role of the unconscious.
According to Freud, the ego is governed by the
The five-factor model of personality includes
According to Jung, art, religion, myths, and drama are important to individual functioning because they
One of Freud's major contributions was his
What do psychologists mean by the term trait-situation interaction?
An adjective checklist would most likely be used by a
The "amazing similarities" of identical twins may be a result of
Psychologists who believe that people grow and develop throughout their lives and that people are inherently good are
Connie and Sue are identical twins reared apart and recently reunited. Carl and Fred are unrelated students at a major university. Which of the following statements is TRUE of these pairings?
According to the humanists, __________ occurs when people are free from dependence on external authority or on other people.
A psychiatrist who explains pathological behavior as a conflict between underlying psychological forces is using the __________ model.
According to behaviorists,
The part of the mind that is beyond awareness is called the
The __________ contains material of which you may be unaware but that can easily be brought to awareness.
According to Freud, the key to mental health is
If you know the personality of an identical twin, you can expect the personality of the other twin to be
The __________ begins with puberty and ends with a mature capacity for love and the realization of full adult sexuality.
Which is included as one of the traits Maslow theorized were possessed by self-actualizers?
We each have a perception of our own personality traits. This perception strongly influences our behavior. Psychologists call this perception
A key element of Carl Rogers' personality theory is the concept of
According to Freud, the Oedipal and Electra conflicts end when a child takes on the values and behaviors of the same sex parent in a process called
Between the ages of 1 and 3 years, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
The position that personality is composed of learned patterns is held by
Which theory of personality was developed by Sigmund Freud?
Freud became interested in the study of personality when he realized that
Jung believed that there are basic universal concepts in all people regardless of culture called
The description of a person's character implies
The main criticism of humanistic theory is that
If self-esteem is too high, the person may be
Behaviorists are to the external environment as humanists are to
Freud believed that at each psychosexual stage a different part of the body becomes
Self-actualization refers to
The term personality refers to
__________ theories stress private, subjective experience and personal growth.
During the first year of life, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
Critics of psychoanalytic personality theory note its failure to
Learning sex-appropriate behavior is greatly influenced by
Which of the following is POOR advice for a person who wishes to promote self-actualization?
If you were asked to describe the personality of your best friend, and you said she was optimistic, reserved, and friendly, you would be using the __________ approach.
The halo effect refers to
According to Rogers, the __________ self represents a very idealized self-image.
In Freudian theory, the __________ is the "executive" structure that is directed by the reality principle.
According to Freud, the Oedipus and Electra conflicts occur during the
Characteristics that are shared by most members of a culture are termed
The role "possible selves" play in our lives is to
In Adler's view, the main striving of personality is for
An overly strict or harsh superego will cause
Concerning pure extroversion and pure introversion, it is most accurate to say
Classifying people as having either a Type A or Type B personality has been used to predict
Rogers calls the image of the person you would like to be the
Which personality theories attempt to explain behavior by focusing on the inner workings of the personality including internal conflicts?
Delaying action until it is appropriate describes the ego's use of the
The psychological situation, expectancy, and reinforcement value are important concepts in
__________ theorists believe humans have free will.
In psychoanalytic theory, conscious control is experienced by the
Abraham Maslow developed the concept of self-actualization by initially studying
Freud called an unresolved conflict caused by over-indulgence or frustration a(n)
The messy and disorderly person is described by Freud as being
__________ traits are personality traits the comprise a person's unique individual qualities.
Which personality theorist strongly rejected Sigmund Freud's claim that males are dominant or superior to females?
For Freud, the time during which psychosexual development is interrupted is called the
At what age does personality become quite stable?
Suppose the ego were a hungry person in a crowded cafeteria. The ego would most likely
Which of the following is the correct ordering of Freud's psychosexual stages?
The popularity of politicians who are physically attractive may be a consequence of the
Which of the following could account for a major personality change in middle adulthood?
According to Jung, a mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans is
A defining characteristic of traits is that they are