Personality

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Id is to "Just do it" as superego is to

The unconscious contains

Behavioral theories of personality are often criticized for their

The concept of traits is used to account for personal characteristics that are

The five-factor model of personality includes

A personality theory is a(n)

Which of the following is an unconscious personality structure made up of biological urges seeking fulfillment?

Criticisms of Freud's developmental theory have centered on

One problem psychologists have with personality types is they

Freud believed that personality was typified by

To understand personality, trait theorists attempt to

According to Freud, the energy from life instincts that drives personality is called the

According to Freud, the id is governed by the

Learning theorists

In the Freudian view of personality, which system is totally unconscious and dominated by biological instincts?

__________ theory maximized and __________ theory minimized the role of the unconscious.

According to Freud, the ego is governed by the

The five-factor model of personality includes

According to Jung, art, religion, myths, and drama are important to individual functioning because they

One of Freud's major contributions was his

What do psychologists mean by the term trait-situation interaction?

An adjective checklist would most likely be used by a

The "amazing similarities" of identical twins may be a result of

Psychologists who believe that people grow and develop throughout their lives and that people are inherently good are

Connie and Sue are identical twins reared apart and recently reunited. Carl and Fred are unrelated students at a major university. Which of the following statements is TRUE of these pairings?

According to the humanists, __________ occurs when people are free from dependence on external authority or on other people.

A psychiatrist who explains pathological behavior as a conflict between underlying psychological forces is using the __________ model.

According to behaviorists,

The part of the mind that is beyond awareness is called the

The __________ contains material of which you may be unaware but that can easily be brought to awareness.

According to Freud, the key to mental health is

If you know the personality of an identical twin, you can expect the personality of the other twin to be

The __________ begins with puberty and ends with a mature capacity for love and the realization of full adult sexuality.

Which is included as one of the traits Maslow theorized were possessed by self-actualizers?

We each have a perception of our own personality traits. This perception strongly influences our behavior. Psychologists call this perception

A key element of Carl Rogers' personality theory is the concept of

According to Freud, the Oedipal and Electra conflicts end when a child takes on the values and behaviors of the same sex parent in a process called

Between the ages of 1 and 3 years, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.

The position that personality is composed of learned patterns is held by

Which theory of personality was developed by Sigmund Freud?

Freud became interested in the study of personality when he realized that

Jung believed that there are basic universal concepts in all people regardless of culture called

The description of a person's character implies

The main criticism of humanistic theory is that

If self-esteem is too high, the person may be

Behaviorists are to the external environment as humanists are to

Freud believed that at each psychosexual stage a different part of the body becomes

Self-actualization refers to

The term personality refers to

__________ theories stress private, subjective experience and personal growth.

During the first year of life, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.

Critics of psychoanalytic personality theory note its failure to

Learning sex-appropriate behavior is greatly influenced by

Which of the following is POOR advice for a person who wishes to promote self-actualization?

If you were asked to describe the personality of your best friend, and you said she was optimistic, reserved, and friendly, you would be using the __________ approach.

The halo effect refers to

According to Rogers, the __________ self represents a very idealized self-image.

In Freudian theory, the __________ is the "executive" structure that is directed by the reality principle.

According to Freud, the Oedipus and Electra conflicts occur during the

Characteristics that are shared by most members of a culture are termed

The role "possible selves" play in our lives is to

In Adler's view, the main striving of personality is for

An overly strict or harsh superego will cause

Concerning pure extroversion and pure introversion, it is most accurate to say

Classifying people as having either a Type A or Type B personality has been used to predict

Rogers calls the image of the person you would like to be the

Which personality theories attempt to explain behavior by focusing on the inner workings of the personality including internal conflicts?

Delaying action until it is appropriate describes the ego's use of the

The psychological situation, expectancy, and reinforcement value are important concepts in

__________ theorists believe humans have free will.

In psychoanalytic theory, conscious control is experienced by the

Temperament refers to

Abraham Maslow developed the concept of self-actualization by initially studying

Freud called an unresolved conflict caused by over-indulgence or frustration a(n)

The messy and disorderly person is described by Freud as being

__________ traits are personality traits the comprise a person's unique individual qualities.

Which personality theorist strongly rejected Sigmund Freud's claim that males are dominant or superior to females?

For Freud, the time during which psychosexual development is interrupted is called the

At what age does personality become quite stable?

Suppose the ego were a hungry person in a crowded cafeteria. The ego would most likely

Which of the following is the correct ordering of Freud's psychosexual stages?

The popularity of politicians who are physically attractive may be a consequence of the

Which of the following could account for a major personality change in middle adulthood?

According to Jung, a mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans is

A defining characteristic of traits is that they are