Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
The tendency for prior learning to inhibit recall of later learning is called
Things that are heard are held as a brief __________ in the sensory register.
Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high school with from a larger group of strangers. To do so she has used
Memories outside of conscious awareness are called
The image that persists for about one-half second after being seen is a(n)
Cue-dependent (or context dependent) theories of memory suggest that you would do best on your chemistry test if you could be tested
The part of the brain that functions as a "switching station" between the STM and LTM is the
The fact that a bodily state that exists during learning can be a strong cue for later memory is known as
__________ concentrates on the meaning of information you want to remember.
Criticism of recovered memories has centered on the fact that
Transforming incoming information into a usable form is the stage of memory called
Helen has a six-month "gap" in her memories of grade school. Her "gap" corresponds to the period immediately after her father's death. Helen's memory loss is most likely accounted for by
Memories of historical facts are to __________ memory, as memories of your breakfast this morning are to __________ memory.
The storage capacity of long-term memory is best described as
The definition of memory is that it is an active system that receives, organizes, and
Psychologists have concluded that long-term memories fall into the following two categories:
Decay theories of memory loss seem to be most appropriate for
Essay questions tend to be more difficult than multiple choice because with an essay question,
The first step in placing information into memory storage is
An intelligence test for adults frequently has a general knowledge section which tests for
The process of holding information in memory is referred to as
Recoding, chunking, and rehearsal are especially important for the improvement of
The improvement of memory to truly exceptional levels involves
Working memory is associated with which of the following?
__________ determines what information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory.
Students often assume that because they can answer all the study questions once, they have sufficiently prepared for a test. This mistaken attitude overlooks the importance of __________ for improving memory.
__________ refers to the fading of memory traces from short-term memory.
The major problem with using hypnosis in police work is
Eidetic imagery is found more often in
A mail clerk has to rearrange mailboxes in a student dormitory and for a few days has difficulty sorting the mail. This illustrates
__________ primarily keeps memories active in short-term memory.
Which of the following determines what information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory?
When students who go to graduate school have to brush up on a foreign language they learned before, they find it easier the second time around. This illustrates
Organizing information into larger units as a way of improving the efficiency of short-term memory is called
Which of the following is true of short-term memory?
Information is remembered without explicit cues or stimuli, often verbatim in
State dependent learning is a term which refers to the fact that
Remembering the first and last items of a list better than items in the middle is due to
Which of the following can help to create false memories?
Consolidation refers to the
Procedural memory would be affected by damage to the
Which of the following would be an example of short-term memory?
According to the interference theory of forgetting,
Which of the following is true of rehearsal of information?
The "magic number" __________ represents the average number of "bits" of information that short-term memory can usually handle.
__________ memory is that part of long-term memory containing factual information.
Evolutionary explanations for the efficiency of memory argue
The kind of memory that lasts for only a second or two is
When new learning disrupts the ability to recall past, stored information, __________ has been said to occur.
__________ is known for memorizing nonsense syllables and plotting a curve of forgetting.
Which term refers to the observation that we alter memories by filling in gaps or by adding new information?
When a person fills in gaps in memory with logic the process is called
"Flashbulb" memories, which are vivid, lasting images of events associated with personal tragedy, may be produced in part by
As new memories are formed, older memories are often __________.
The correct order for the three stages of memory is
Let's say you have a friend, Harriet, who is having trouble memorizing information for an anatomy class. The simplest and most helpful thing you could do would be to explain __________ to her.
An area of the brain of particular importance for memory storage is the
The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information is called __________ memory.
Often, memories appear to be available but not accessible, as in
The fact that many people don't know which way Lincoln is facing on the penny is probably due to
Joan repeats a list of vocabulary words for the Spanish test to move them from her short-term to long-term memory. This repetition is called
Using a variety of __________ can open a pathway to memory.
An expert typist who cannot describe the exact location of letters on a typewriter keyboard is demonstrating the importance of
The Ebbinghaus curve of forgetting shows that forgetting is most rapid
The inability to recall events preceding an accident involving injuries to the head is called
Which of the following would be considered an episodic memory?
Rehearsal works best when
A memory that a person is aware of having, or a memory that is consciously retrieved, is called
Activating implicit memories by providing partial information that is linked with them is called
As shown by the curve of forgetting, memory loss occurs
Which of the following would be considered a semantic memory?
The word used to describe how information gets into the memory system is
In order for a memory to be useful, it must be
Your recollections about your last birthday are stored in your __________ memory.
If you witnessed a crime and were asked to pick out the criminal from a lineup, you would be doing what kind of memory task?
Information in long-term memory can be retained up to
__________ memory is that part of long-term memory made up of conditioned responses and learned skills.
Consciously forcing painful or anxiety-producing thoughts from memory is called
Eidetic memorizers' long-term memory has proven to be
A brain-injured patient who can still execute a perfect golf swing or a high dive but is unable to recall or relearn even the broad outlines of American history is superior in
Interference theories of forgetting suggest that retention will be best when study is followed by
A multiple choice question (like this one) makes greatest use of which type of memory?