Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
In __________ reinforcement, the reinforcer follows every correct response.
In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, salivation was the
The presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus are both examples of
In classical conditioning, learning is evident when a
In Thorndike's law of effect, events critical for conditioning
If you have a snake phobia because you once heard a loud noise while looking at a snake, for you a snake is a(n)
A series of responses that gradually approach a desired pattern of behavior are called
If the conditioned stimulus is presented many times without reinforcement, we can expect
A child has learned to avoid a furry, black cat. However, she still plays with her grandmother's short-haired tabby. Her response demonstrates
Punishment is most effective in suppressing behavior when it is
The greatest degree of resistance to extinction is typically caused by a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the conditioned stimulus was the
Ivan Pavlov has been credited with the initial discovery of
In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the bell (prior to conditioning) was the
Reinforcement in operant conditioning is most effective when it is
After pairing the CS and US in a series of conditioning trials, the organism learns to respond to the CS alone. This response is then called
Jimmy helps his father put away the dishes after dinner. Jimmy's father wants to increase the probability of this behavior and will be most successful by praising Jimmy
After a response has been extinguished, it will often reappear after a short time has passed. This is called
The first grade teacher gives students stickers when they perform well. If they earn five stickers in one day they are exempt from homework. The stickers in this example could also be called
A student does a good job on math problems for homework, and the teacher awards a sticker. This demonstrates the use of
In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the bell (during and after conditioning) was the
One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that
In classical conditioning, events critical to the learning occur __________ the response.
A punisher can be
In a study of punishment, shock is administered to a hamster through a wire grid on the bottom of the cage. To the researcher's surprise, the hamster learns to roll on its back when shocked so that its fur insulates it from the shock. The hamster's response demonstrates
Becoming addicted to gambling is related to the effects of
The technique of using desensitization involves
A dog that gets rewarded for the first bark it makes in each ten minute period is being reinforced on a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, food was the
To strengthen the connection between the CS and the CR, the CS must
Which of the following statements about punishment is FALSE?
Operant conditioning was studied by
Using poker chips to reinforce mental patients for healthy behavior would be an example of using
Advertisers often try to use higher order conditioning by
A neutral stimulus is one that
Which of the following might serve as a secondary reinforcer?
For conditioning to occur, the proper order of events is
A team coach who benches a player for poor performance is using
For the connection between the CS and the CR to be strengthened, the CS must
In operant conditioning, what is the relationship between events critical to learning and the response to be learned?
The unconditioned stimulus, by definition, leads to a(n)
In a classic experiment, "Little Albert," a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of
When a stimulus acquires the power to elicit a response as a result of being paired with a stimulus that already produces the response
Which of the following describes the state of affairs after conditioning?
The most basic form of learning that is not heavily dependent on higher order intellectual processes is known as