Learning

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

In __________ reinforcement, the reinforcer follows every correct response.

In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, salivation was the

The presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus are both examples of

In classical conditioning, learning is evident when a

In Thorndike's law of effect, events critical for conditioning

If you have a snake phobia because you once heard a loud noise while looking at a snake, for you a snake is a(n)

A series of responses that gradually approach a desired pattern of behavior are called

If the conditioned stimulus is presented many times without reinforcement, we can expect

A child has learned to avoid a furry, black cat. However, she still plays with her grandmother's short-haired tabby. Her response demonstrates

Punishment is most effective in suppressing behavior when it is

The greatest degree of resistance to extinction is typically caused by a __________ schedule of reinforcement.

In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the conditioned stimulus was the

Ivan Pavlov has been credited with the initial discovery of

In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the bell (prior to conditioning) was the

Reinforcement in operant conditioning is most effective when it is

After pairing the CS and US in a series of conditioning trials, the organism learns to respond to the CS alone. This response is then called

Jimmy helps his father put away the dishes after dinner. Jimmy's father wants to increase the probability of this behavior and will be most successful by praising Jimmy

After a response has been extinguished, it will often reappear after a short time has passed. This is called

The first grade teacher gives students stickers when they perform well. If they earn five stickers in one day they are exempt from homework. The stickers in this example could also be called

A student does a good job on math problems for homework, and the teacher awards a sticker. This demonstrates the use of

In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the bell (during and after conditioning) was the

One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that

In classical conditioning, events critical to the learning occur __________ the response.

A punisher can be

In a study of punishment, shock is administered to a hamster through a wire grid on the bottom of the cage. To the researcher's surprise, the hamster learns to roll on its back when shocked so that its fur insulates it from the shock. The hamster's response demonstrates

Becoming addicted to gambling is related to the effects of

The technique of using desensitization involves

A dog that gets rewarded for the first bark it makes in each ten minute period is being reinforced on a __________ schedule of reinforcement.

In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, food was the

To strengthen the connection between the CS and the CR, the CS must

Which of the following statements about punishment is FALSE?

Operant conditioning was studied by

Using poker chips to reinforce mental patients for healthy behavior would be an example of using

Advertisers often try to use higher order conditioning by

A neutral stimulus is one that

Which of the following might serve as a secondary reinforcer?

For conditioning to occur, the proper order of events is

A team coach who benches a player for poor performance is using

For the connection between the CS and the CR to be strengthened, the CS must

In operant conditioning, what is the relationship between events critical to learning and the response to be learned?

The unconditioned stimulus, by definition, leads to a(n)

In a classic experiment, "Little Albert," a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of

When a stimulus acquires the power to elicit a response as a result of being paired with a stimulus that already produces the response

Which of the following describes the state of affairs after conditioning?

The most basic form of learning that is not heavily dependent on higher order intellectual processes is known as

Which of the following best describes punishment?

Negative reinforcement __________ responding; punishment __________ responding.

Two schedules of reinforcement that produce the highest rates of response are

__________ occurs when making a response removes an unpleasant event.

To shape the behavior of their students, teachers employ

If you give a child her favorite licorice candy for doing well in school and she continues to do well in school, the licorice candy is

Increased feedback

A child is conditioned to fear a furry, black cat. Soon she becomes fearful of any black, furry object. Her new response demonstrates

The schedule of reinforcement in which a set number of responses must be made for each reward is called

The fact that responses become more resistant to extinction, after partial reinforcement, is called

If you slow down every time you see a police car, your slowing down is probably due to

Your niece has a temper tantrum in the store when she is shopping. If you buy her a toy you are

Negative reinforcement and punishment

A puppy has begun to cry and bark in order to be let into the house. To extinguish this response, you would

Acquiring a fear of a light because you saw someone else getting shocked when the light came on is an example of

Secondary reinforcers are

Which form of learning would most likely be studied in a Skinner box?

A child is frightened by a loud noise while playing with a cat. If the child learns to fear the cat, it can be said that the cat was

A child bitten by a white dog is not afraid of black dogs. This is an example of

Presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus will result in

A corporate pay policy comparable to a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement is

By a continuous reinforcement schedule, we mean that

When you are first learning golf, you may hit one or two great shots in an entire round. You are being reinforced on what kind of partial reinforcement schedule?

To teach a child to eat spaghetti, you would reinforce initial responses, such as holding the fork, and then increasingly closer approximations to the final response, a procedure known as

A rat learns to push a button in order to turn on a tone previously associated with food. The button pushing has been rewarded by a(n) __________ reinforcer.

Your handsome successful boyfriend winks at you each time before he tells you "I love you." Your expectation when he winks is a(an)

The process through which a response is taught by rewarding successive approximations to the final desired response is

A child who occasionally gets rewarded with candy after asking her grandmother for a "treat" is being rewarded on a __________ schedule.

Teaching your cat to turn on the living room lights would best be accomplished by

In operant conditioning, the reinforcer occurs __________ the response, and in classical conditioning, it occurs __________.

Two principles of conditioning that have aided our learning and improved our adaptability as a species are

Learning is best defined as

Responses that are reinforced and tend to be repeated illustrate

To be effective, punishment should be

Which of the following best describes the unusual events that occurred in Pavlov's laboratory leading him to the discovery of classical conditioning?

After weeks of successful extinction trials, your pet dachshund suddenly resumes burying bones in the front yard. Your pet therapist advises you that the dog's behavior is an example of

Operant conditioning is to Skinner as classical conditioning is to

Classical conditioning is most often used to condition