1 Aaron Beck

OK- Extra Credit assignments

I gave you the numbers in class that you are assigned to you.  In MICROSOFT WORD you are going to Type the Psychology Word (NOT the NUMBER) then press return to go to the next line, then write the definition.  The following site will help you with some of the definitions.  Make the definitions understandable- pretend you are writing them to explain them to your friend.  Then attach the document to an e-mail and send it to [email protected]   Do not put the terms in the body of the email.  Label clearly who it is from and what it is.

Good Luck

http://www.usu.edu/psycho101/glossary/a-z.html

1 Aaron Beck’s view of depression
2 absolute threshold
3 achievement vs. aptitude tests
4 action vs. resting potential
5. acuity-vision
6 Ainsworth Strange Situation (Paradigm)
7 Albert Bandura: major view on learning and Bobo Doll experiment
8 Albert Ellis – Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
9 Alfred Adler – inferiority complex
10 all-or-nothing law (all-or-none) of neural firing
11 altruism
12 American Psychological Association (APA)
13 amnesia (anteriograde & retrograde)
14 apparent motion
15 arousal
16 Asch’s conformity study (line segments)
17 attachment
18 attribution theory
19 aversive conditioning (good or bad?) 20 aversive conditions
21 Babinsky response
22 behavior as being adaptive
23 bell curve (normal distribution)
24 Benjamin Worf’s theory of linguistic relativism (determinism)
25 binocular disparity
26 blind spot
27 blood brain barrier
28 brain: what part do we share with animals? How do we differ?
29 brainstorming
30 Broca’s aphasia (expressive) located in left frontal lobe
31 bystander intervention: factors that influence it
32 Cannon’s critique of James-Lange theory
33 Carl Rogers: person (client) centered therapy
34 Carol Gilligan’s critique of Kohlberg’s theory
35 chaining
36 character disorders : major ones
37 chunking
38 classical conditioning ( & can you distinguish it from operantl conditioning)
39 Clever Hans experiment 40 cognitive dissonance 41 color blindness: kinds 42 complementary colors 43 conflicts: four kinds 44 control group 45 correlation coefficients 46 cortexes of the brain : major ones 47 cross cultural studies 48 cross sectional studies 49 crystallized intelligence: acquired and usually does not decline with age 50 CS-CR-UCS-UCR 51 Daniel Goleman’s views on emotional intelligence 52 David McClelland’s achievement motivation studies 53 defense mechanisms: major ones 54 deindividuation 55 deinstitutionalization 56 dendrite (purpose of) 57 depression: trycyclic antidepressants are most widely used to treat it 58 descriptive vs. inferential statistics 59 determinism 60 developmental psychology 61 Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( purpose and limits) 62 difference threshold (jnd) 63 discrimination (in learning theory and race relations) 64 displacement 65 dissociative disorders 66 dominant responses (aided by social facilitation) 67 Down’s syndrome 68 dream analysis 69 drives 70 Ebbinhaus’ research on memory 71 echoic memory 72 effects of marijuana 73 eidetic memory 74 electroconvulsive shock therapy 75 Elizabeth Loftus’ research on eyewitness testimony 76 endocrine organs and hormones secreted by them 77 endorphins 78 engram 79 episodic memory (a.k.a. flashbulb) 80 equity theory of relationships 81 Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development 82 ethics of testing 83 experiment: be able to design one 84 false consensus effect 85 feature (signal) detector cells: Hubel & Wisel’s research on visual processing 86 feature analysis 87 feral children 88 fetal alcohol syndrome: characteristics 89 figure – ground – phenomenon 90 foot-in-the-door phenomenon 91 formal operations 92 fovea 93 Francis Galton’s research 94 free association 95 frequency polygon 96 Freudian dream analysis: two levels of interpretation 97 Freud’s stage of psychosexual development 98 frustration-aggression hypothesis 99 functional fixedness 100 fundamental attribution error 101 galvanic skin response (GRS) 102 ganglia 103 Gansfeld Procedure 104 Gate Control Theory of Pain 105 generalizability of a study 106 genotype & phenotype 107 Gestalt theory 108 glial cells 109 group therapy (advantages of ) 110 groupthink 111 gustatory sense: detects only sweet, sour, salty, bitter 112 habituation 113 Hans Seyle’s General Adaptation Response 114 Harry Harlow’s research with surrogate mothers 115 Hawthorne Effect 116 heuristics: major types 117 hierarchy of needs (Maslow) can you put them in order? 118 high vs. low self-monitors 119 hindsight bias 120 histogram 121 homeostasis 122 Howard Gardner’s view of multiple intelligence 123 hue: (British term for color) 124 hybrid 125 hypnosis: major theories of 126 hypothalamus 127 id, ego, superego 128 IDEAL (strategy for solving problems) 129 identical twin research 130 identification vs. internalization (Freudian terms) 131 illusory correlation 132 imaging techniques: PET, CAT, MRI, FMRI 133 imprinting 134 incentives 135 independent/dependent variables 136 induced motion 137 inductive vs. deductive reasoning 138 industrial (organizational) psychology 139 ingroup and outgroup bias 140 inner ear – vestibular sense 141 instinct 142 instrumental – operant conditioning 143 Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) 144 intelligence tests (major kinds used) 145 interference (proactive vs. retroactive) 146 internal consistency reliability 147 internalization 148 James-Lange theory of emotions 149 John Garcia’s ideas on the limits of conditioning 150 just-world phenomenon 151 Karen Horney’s views on development 152 kinesthetics 153 Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning 154 Kubler Ross’ stages of dying 155 L-dopa 156 learning curve 157 limbic system: structures and function 158 linear perspective 159 linkage analysis 160 lithium (bi-polar disorders) 161 localization of sound (how is it done? Why are two ears needed?) 162 long term potentiation 163 longitudinal study 164 loss of information from short term memory 165 major neurotransmitters 166 Martin Seligman’s “learned helplessness” 167 measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode 168 measures of variability: range and standard deviation 169 memory: kinds ( sensory, short-term, long-term) 170 mental age 171 mental set 172 metacognition 173 method of loci 174 milieu therapy 175 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Test: use for what? 176 misinformation effect 177 modeling 178 monocular vs. binocular depth cues 179 motion aftereffect 180 motion parallax 181 myelin sheath: where and purpose? 182 narcissism 183 nature vs. nurture controversy 184 nervous system: major parts 185 neuron: three basic parts 186 neurotransmitters: major kinds 187 newborn baby reflexes 188 next-in-line-effect 189 normative social influence 190 norms 191 novelty preference 192 obesity (role of hypothalamus) 193 Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD) 194 occipital lobe 195 Oedipal conflict 196 one eye problem – what you couldn’t do well if you had only one eye 197 operationalizing a definition 198 opponent-process theory of emotions 199 opponent-process theory of visual processing (afterimages) 200 optic disc 201 optic nerve 202 pancreas 203 panic attacks (& what’s the best treatment?) 204 paradoxical sleep: why is REM called this? 205 paresis 206 perceptual constancy (size,color,shape) 207 perceptual set 208 personal space 209 perspectives in psychology (major ones) 210 phenylketonuria (PKU) 211 phi phenomenon 212 phonemes vs. morphemes 213 photoreceptors 214 Piaget’s stages of cognitive development 215 pineal gland (function and what makes it unique?) 216 pitch 217 pituitary gland 218 plasticity 219 positive reinforcement 220 post traumatic stress disorder 221 Premack principle 222 primacy effect 223 projective tests: TAT & Rorschach 224 prosocial behavior: what is it and give an example 225 proximity (effects on relationships) 226 prototype 227 punishment: why it may not be effective and might backfire 228 Rational Emotive Therapy 229 reality principle (function of ego) 230 recessive vs. dominant genes 231 reflex arc 232 reliability vs. validity in testing 233 REM sleep 234 repression 235 reticular formation: related to sleep, arousal, attention 236 retinal disparity (a.k.a. binocular disparity) 237 Robert Rescorla’s findings on conditioning 238 rods and cones (structures & differences) 239 rooting reflex 240 sample 241 scatterplot: most often used to plot correlations 242 schedules of reinforcement (5 kinds – which are most effective?) 243 schema 244 schizophrenia 245 selective attention 246 self-efficacy 247 self-fulfilling prophecy 248 self-serving bias 249 semantic memory 250 serial position effect 251 set point 252 sexual characteristics (primary vs. secondary) 253 sexual identity vs. gender identity 254 shaping 255 signal detection theory 256 sleep disorders: major kinds 257 sleeper effect 258 social cognitive theory 259 social exchange theory 260 social facilitation 261 social loafing 262 social trap 263 somatoform disorders: major kinds 264 somatosensory cortex: location and used for what sense? 265 stages of learning (acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, etc.) 266 standard deviation 267 Stanley Milgram’s experiement with obedience 268 Stanley Schachter’s Two Factor Theory 269 stereotype 270 stimulus generalization 271 stranger anxiety 272 systematic desensitization: a.k.a. a kind of counterconditioning 273 Tay-Sachs disease 274 testable hypothesis 275 thalamus (& what sense doesn’t get routed through here?) 276 Thorndike’s Law of Effect 277 thyroid gland 278 token economy 279 Tourette’s syndrome 280 tragedy of the commons 281 transduction 282 Turner’s syndrome (X with missing chromosome) 283 validity: different kinds 284 vestibular sense 285 visual cliff 286 water balance (role of hypothalamus) 287 Weber’s law 288 Wernicke’s aphasia (receptive) located in left temporal lobe 289 Wilder Penfield’s research on the brain 290 Wilhelm Wundt (structualism) 291 William James (functionalism) 292 Yerkes/Dodson Arousal Law 293 Zajonc’s “Mere Expose Effect” 294 Zimbardo’s prison experiment 295 androgyny 296 catharsis 297 haptic memory 298 syllogism 299 expectancy theory (aka mental set) 300 algorithm 301 positive and negative symptoms (in mental disorders) 302 two kinds of deafness: Conductive and nerve 303 intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation 304 divergent vs. convergent thinking 305 Flynn effect 306 tip-of-the-tongue effect 307 primary vs. secondary reinforcers 308 Cooper’s research on visual processing (using cats) 309 agonist vs. antagonist chemicals 310 Afferent Neurons vs. Efferent Neurons 311 Ethnocentrism 312 androgeny 313 Optimistic Explanatory Style

25 binocular disparity 26 blind spot 27 blood brain barrier 28 brain: what part do we share with animals? How do we differ? 29 brainstorming 30 Broca’s aphasia (expressive) located in left frontal lobe 31 bystander intervention: factors that influence it 32 Cannon’s critique of James-Lange theory 33 Carl Rogers: person (client) centered therapy 34 Carol Gilligan’s critique of Kohlberg’s theory 35 chaining 36 character disorders : major ones 37 chunking 38 classical conditioning ( & can you distinguish it from operantl conditioning) 39 Clever Hans experiment 40 cognitive dissonance 41 color blindness: kinds 42 complementary colors 43 conflicts: four kinds 44 control group 45 correlation coefficients 46 cortexes of the brain : major ones 47 cross cultural studies 48 cross sectional studies 49 crystallized intelligence: acquired and usually does not decline with age 50 CS-CR-UCS-UCR 51 Daniel Goleman’s views on emotional intelligence 52 David McClelland’s achievement motivation studies 53 defense mechanisms: major ones 54 deindividuation 55 deinstitutionalization 56 dendrite (purpose of) 57 depression: trycyclic antidepressants are most widely used to treat it 58 descriptive vs. inferential statistics 59 determinism 60 developmental psychology 61 Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( purpose and limits) 62 difference threshold (jnd) 63 discrimination (in learning theory and race relations) 64 displacement 65 dissociative disorders 66 dominant responses (aided by social facilitation) 67 Down’s syndrome 68 dream analysis 69 drives 70 Ebbinhaus’ research on memory 71 echoic memory 72 effects of marijuana 73 eidetic memory 74 electroconvulsive shock therapy 75 Elizabeth Loftus’ research on eyewitness testimony 76 endocrine organs and hormones secreted by them 77 endorphins 78 engram 79 episodic memory (a.k.a. flashbulb) 80 equity theory of relationships 81 Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development 82 ethics of testing 83 experiment: be able to design one 84 false consensus effect 85 feature (signal) detector cells: Hubel & Wisel’s research on visual processing 86 feature analysis 87 feral children 88 fetal alcohol syndrome: characteristics 89 figure – ground – phenomenon 90 foot-in-the-door phenomenon 91 formal operations 92 fovea 93 Francis Galton’s research 94 free association 95 frequency polygon 96 Freudian dream analysis: two levels of interpretation 97 Freud’s stage of psychosexual development 98 frustration-aggression hypothesis 99 functional fixedness 100 fundamental attribution error 101 galvanic skin response (GRS) 102 ganglia 103 Gansfeld Procedure 104 Gate Control Theory of Pain 105 generalizability of a study 106 genotype & phenotype 107 Gestalt theory 108 glial cells 109 group therapy (advantages of ) 110 groupthink 111 gustatory sense: detects only sweet, sour, salty, bitter 112 habituation 113 Hans Seyle’s General Adaptation Response 114 Harry Harlow’s research with surrogate mothers 115 Hawthorne Effect 116 heuristics: major types 117 hierarchy of needs (Maslow) can you put them in order? 118 high vs. low self-monitors 119 hindsight bias 120 histogram 121 homeostasis 122 Howard Gardner’s view of multiple intelligence 123 hue: (British term for color) 124 hybrid 125 hypnosis: major theories of 126 hypothalamus 127 id, ego, superego 128 IDEAL (strategy for solving problems) 129 identical twin research 130 identification vs. internalization (Freudian terms) 131 illusory correlation 132 imaging techniques: PET, CAT, MRI, FMRI 133 imprinting 134 incentives 135 independent/dependent variables 136 induced motion 137 inductive vs. deductive reasoning 138 industrial (organizational) psychology 139 ingroup and outgroup bias 140 inner ear – vestibular sense 141 instinct 142 instrumental – operant conditioning 143 Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) 144 intelligence tests (major kinds used) 145 interference (proactive vs. retroactive) 146 internal consistency reliability 147 internalization 148 James-Lange theory of emotions 149 John Garcia’s ideas on the limits of conditioning 150 just-world phenomenon 151 Karen Horney’s views on development 152 kinesthetics 153 Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning 154 Kubler Ross’ stages of dying 155 L-dopa 156 learning curve 157 limbic system: structures and function 158 linear perspective 159 linkage analysis 160 lithium (bi-polar disorders) 161 localization of sound (how is it done? Why are two ears needed?) 162 long term potentiation 163 longitudinal study 164 loss of information from short term memory 165 major neurotransmitters 166 Martin Seligman’s “learned helplessness” 167 measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode 168 measures of variability: range and standard deviation 169 memory: kinds ( sensory, short-term, long-term) 170 mental age 171 mental set 172 metacognition 173 method of loci 174 milieu therapy 175 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Test: use for what? 176 misinformation effect 177 modeling 178 monocular vs. binocular depth cues 179 motion aftereffect 180 motion parallax 181 myelin sheath: where and purpose? 182 narcissism 183 nature vs. nurture controversy 184 nervous system: major parts 185 neuron: three basic parts 186 neurotransmitters: major kinds 187 newborn baby reflexes 188 next-in-line-effect 189 normative social influence 190 norms 191 novelty preference 192 obesity (role of hypothalamus) 193 Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD) 194 occipital lobe 195 Oedipal conflict 196 one eye problem – what you couldn’t do well if you had only one eye 197 operationalizing a definition 198 opponent-process theory of emotions 199 opponent-process theory of visual processing (afterimages) 200 optic disc 201 optic nerve 202 pancreas 203 panic attacks (& what’s the best treatment?) 204 paradoxical sleep: why is REM called this? 205 paresis 206 perceptual constancy (size,color,shape) 207 perceptual set 208 personal space 209 perspectives in psychology (major ones) 210 phenylketonuria (PKU) 211 phi phenomenon 212 phonemes vs. morphemes 213 photoreceptors 214 Piaget’s stages of cognitive development 215 pineal gland (function and what makes it unique?) 216 pitch 217 pituitary gland 218 plasticity 219 positive reinforcement 220 post traumatic stress disorder 221 Premack principle 222 primacy effect 223 projective tests: TAT & Rorschach 224 prosocial behavior: what is it and give an example 225 proximity (effects on relationships) 226 prototype 227 punishment: why it may not be effective and might backfire 228 Rational Emotive Therapy 229 reality principle (function of ego) 230 recessive vs. dominant genes 231 reflex arc 232 reliability vs. validity in testing 233 REM sleep 234 repression 235 reticular formation: related to sleep, arousal, attention 236 retinal disparity (a.k.a. binocular disparity) 237 Robert Rescorla’s findings on conditioning 238 rods and cones (structures & differences) 239 rooting reflex 240 sample 241 scatterplot: most often used to plot correlations 242 schedules of reinforcement (5 kinds – which are most effective?) 243 schema 244 schizophrenia 245 selective attention 246 self-efficacy 247 self-fulfilling prophecy 248 self-serving bias 249 semantic memory 250 serial position effect 251 set point 252 sexual characteristics (primary vs. secondary) 253 sexual identity vs. gender identity 254 shaping 255 signal detection theory 256 sleep disorders: major kinds 257 sleeper effect 258 social cognitive theory 259 social exchange theory 260 social facilitation 261 social loafing 262 social trap 263 somatoform disorders: major kinds 264 somatosensory cortex: location and used for what sense? 265 stages of learning (acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, etc.) 266 standard deviation 267 Stanley Milgram’s experiement with obedience 268 Stanley Schachter’s Two Factor Theory 269 stereotype 270 stimulus generalization 271 stranger anxiety 272 systematic desensitization: a.k.a. a kind of counterconditioning 273 Tay-Sachs disease 274 testable hypothesis 275 thalamus (& what sense doesn’t get routed through here?) 276 Thorndike’s Law of Effect 277 thyroid gland 278 token economy 279 Tourette’s syndrome 280 tragedy of the commons 281 transduction 282 Turner’s syndrome (X with missing chromosome) 283 validity: different kinds 284 vestibular sense 285 visual cliff 286 water balance (role of hypothalamus) 287 Weber’s law 288 Wernicke’s aphasia (receptive) located in left temporal lobe 289 Wilder Penfield’s research on the brain 290 Wilhelm Wundt (structualism) 291 William James (functionalism) 292 Yerkes/Dodson Arousal Law 293 Zajonc’s “Mere Expose Effect” 294 Zimbardo’s prison experiment 295 androgyny 296 catharsis 297 haptic memory 298 syllogism 299 expectancy theory (aka mental set) 300 algorithm 301 positive and negative symptoms (in mental disorders) 302 two kinds of deafness: Conductive and nerve 303 intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation 304 divergent vs. convergent thinking 305 Flynn effect 306 tip-of-the-tongue effect 307 primary vs. secondary reinforcers 308 Cooper’s research on visual processing (using cats) 309 agonist vs. antagonist chemicals 310 Afferent Neurons vs. Efferent Neurons 311 Ethnocentrism 312 androgeny 313 Optimistic Explanatory Style

ставка рефинансирования Цб россии в 2007 году.. utp cat 5e, пара тип кабеля.